Biology 12th is one of the scoring subjects having a lot of amazing facts in it. Apart from being an essential subject in the science group, one can score good marks in biology 12th. This would help them to get placed in good medical institutions.
Biology 12 syllabus for the academic year 2021-22 contains five units in total - unit 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. Unit 6 is the chapter on reproduction. The number of periods allotted to it is 30, and the total marks carried by this unit are 14. Unit 7 contains the chapter on genetics and evolution. The marks credited to this unit are 18, and the periods allotted to these particular titles are 40 as per as CBSE syllabus for class 12 biology. Biology and Human welfare is the title of unit 8. The curriculum has provided 30 periods for this unit. The number allotted to the section is 14, according to the CBSE class 12 biology syllabus. Unit 9 contains a chapter about biotechnology and its applications. The total number of periods allotted for this unit is 30, and the marks provided for these titles are 10. The last unit or unit 10 is based on ecology and environment. This unit contains 14 marks and has been allotted 30 periods in total. Summing up every unit from the biology class 12 syllabus, the total number of periods is 160, and the total marks for the subject are 70.
There is a sum of 4 units in class 12 Biology Syllabus of CBSE Which has Chapter name is given below.
The Chapter are mentioned below:
Unit VI: Reproduction
Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution
Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare
Unit IX. Biotechnology and Its Applications
Unit X: Ecology and Environment
In this chapter, students will get a piece of in-depth knowledge about flower structure in plants. The chapter also highlights the development of male and female reproductive parts. Students will also get to know about the different kinds of pollination. Apart from these, the chapter also highlights the significance of seed dispersal.
In this Chapter ,Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization. It typically involves sexual intercourse between a man and a woman. During sexual intercourse, the interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in fertilization of the woman's ovum by the man's sperm.
The students in the chapter get to know about reproductive health and how to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. The chapter also discusses infertility and assisted reproductive technologies like IVF, GIFT, and ZIFT.
The chapter talks about inheritance and variation in human beings. Students also get to know about sex determination in human beings, birds etc.
The chapter discusses genetic material and DNA. Students also get a clear concept about the structure of DNA and RNA. Apart from this, the chapter also discusses DNA packaging, DNA replication and central dogma.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offspring during reproduction.
Students, upon reading this chapter, get to know about pathogens, parasites that cause human disease. The chapter also provides solutions to prevent the disease from parasites. Apart from these, the chapter also explains the basic concept of Immunology in 12th biology syllabus.
Improvement in food production
The chapter highlights microbes in human welfare that are microbes in food processing, sewage treatment and bio-fertilizer. The chapter briefly explains antibiotics and their reductions and usage.
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
The chapter gave a brief explanation about biotechnology application in the health as well as the agricultural sector. One, upon reading the paper, gets an in-depth knowledge about insulin and vaccine production. Other concepts covered in the chapter are stem cell technology, gene therapy and genetically modified organisms.
Organisms and environment: The topics covered in this chapter are habitat and niche population and ecological adoption. Students also know about various kinds of population interaction like mutualism, predation, and population attributes etc. Other concepts covered in the chapter are growth rate, birth rate, death rate, age distribution etc.
Ecosystem is a geographic area where plants, animals, and other organisms, as well as weather and landscape, work together to form a bubble of life. Ecosystems contain biotic or living, parts, as well as abiotic factors, or nonliving parts. Biotic factors include plants, animals, and other organisms.
Students get to know different concepts related to biodiversity and its conservation in this chapter. Topics included in the chapter include loss of diversity, biodiversity conservation, red data book, sacred groves, biosphere reserve, wildlife sanctuaries, Ramsar sites etc.
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